Java 文件 IO 操作

1. File类

File 类 是 java.io 包中唯一代表磁盘文件本身的对象

  • File(String dirPath) 构造生成 File 对象
import java.io.File;

class FileDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        File f = new File("file.txt");
        if(f.exists())
            f.delete();
        else{
            try{
                f.createNewFile();
            }
            catch(Exception e){
                System.out.println(e.getMessage());
            }
        }
        System.out.println("getName()获取文件名:"+f.getName());
        System.out.println("getPath()获取文件路径:"+f.getPath());
        System.out.println("getAbsolutePath()绝对路径:"+f.getAbsolutePath());
        System.out.println("getParent()父文件夹名:"+f.getParent());
        System.out.println("exists()文件存在吗?"+f.exists());
        System.out.println("canWrite()文件可写吗?"+f.canWrite());
        System.out.println("canRead()文件可读吗?"+f.canRead());
        System.out.println("isDirectory()是否是目录?"+f.isDirectory());
        System.out.println("isFile()是否是文件?"+f.isFile());
        System.out.println("isAbsolute()是否是绝对路径名称?"+f.isAbsolute());
        System.out.println("lastModified()最后修改时间:"+f.lastModified());
        System.out.println("length()文件长度-字节单位:"+f.length());
    }
}

输出:

getName()获取文件名:file.txt
getPath()获取文件路径:file.txt
getAbsolutePath()绝对路径:D:\gitcode\java_learning\file.txt
getParent()父文件夹名:null
exists()文件存在吗?true
canWrite()文件可写吗?true
canRead()文件可读吗?true
isDirectory()是否是目录?false
isFile()是否是文件?true
isAbsolute()是否是绝对路径名称?false
lastModified()最后修改时间:1614680366121
length()文件长度-字节单位:0

2. RandomAccessFile类

  • 随机跳转到文件的任意位置处读写数据,该类仅限于操作文件
import java.io.File;
import java.io.RandomAccessFile;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;

class FileDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        File f = new File("file.txt");
        if(f.exists())
            f.delete();
        else{
            try{
                f.createNewFile();
            }
            catch(Exception e){
                System.out.println(e.getMessage());
            }
        }
        System.out.println("name获取文件名:"+f.getName());
        System.out.println("getPath()获取文件路径:"+f.getPath());
        System.out.println("getAbsolutePath()绝对路径:"+f.getAbsolutePath());
        System.out.println("getParent()父文件夹名:"+f.getParent());
        System.out.println("exists()文件存在吗?"+f.exists());
        System.out.println("canWrite()文件可写吗?"+f.canWrite());
        System.out.println("canRead()文件可读吗?"+f.canRead());
        System.out.println("isDirectory()是否是目录?"+f.isDirectory());
        System.out.println("isFile()是否是文件?"+f.isFile());
        System.out.println("isAbsolute()是否是绝对路径名称?"+f.isAbsolute());
        System.out.println("lastModified()最后修改时间:"+f.lastModified());
        System.out.println("length()文件长度-字节单位:"+f.length());
    }
}


class Employee1{
    String name;
    int age;
    final static int LEN = 8;
    public Employee1(String name, int age){
        if(name.length() > LEN){
            name = name.substring(0,8);
        }
        else {
            while(name.length() < LEN)
                name = name + " ";
        }
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }
}
class RandomFileDemo{
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
        Employee1 e1 = new Employee1("Michael___",18);
        Employee1 e2 = new Employee1("Ming",19);
        Employee1 e3 = new Employee1("ABC",20);
        RandomAccessFile ra = new RandomAccessFile("employee.txt","rw");
        ra.write(e1.name.getBytes());
        ra.writeInt(e1.age);
        ra.write(e2.name.getBytes());
        ra.writeInt(e2.age);
        ra.write(e3.name.getBytes());
        ra.writeInt(e3.age);
        ra.close();

        RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile("employee.txt","r");
        int len = 8;
        raf.skipBytes(12);//跳过第一个员工信息,名字8字节,年龄4字节
        System.out.println("第2个员工信息:");
        String str = "";
        for(int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            str = str+(char)raf.readByte();
        System.out.println("name: "+str);
        System.out.println("age: "+raf.readInt());

        System.out.println("第1个员工的信息:");
        raf.seek(0);//移动到开始位置
        str = "";
        for(int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            str = str+(char)raf.readByte();
        System.out.println("name: "+str.trim());
        System.out.println("age: "+raf.readInt());

        System.out.println("第3个员工的信息:");
        raf.skipBytes(12); // 跳过第2个员工信息
        str = "";
        for(int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            str = str+(char)raf.readByte();
        System.out.println("name: "+str.trim());
        System.out.println("age: "+raf.readInt());
        raf.close();
    }
}

输出:

2个员工信息:
name: Ming    
age: 191个员工的信息:
name: Michael_
age: 183个员工的信息:
name: ABC
age: 20

进程已结束,退出代码为 0

3. 流类

  • InputStream、OutputStream 字节流(处理字节、二进制对象)
  • Reader、Writer 字符流(字符、字符串)

处理流程:

  • 使用 File 类找到文件
  • 通过 File 类对象实例化 流的子类
  • 进行字节、字符的读写操作
  • 关闭文件流

3.1 字节流


import java.io.*;

class IoDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        // 写文件
        File f = new File("file.txt");
        FileOutputStream out = null;
        try{
            out = new FileOutputStream(f);
        }
        catch (FileNotFoundException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        byte b[] = "Hello Michael!".getBytes();
        try{
            out.write(b);
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        try{
            out.close();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        // 读文件
        FileInputStream in = null;
        try{
            in = new FileInputStream(f);
        }
        catch (FileNotFoundException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        byte b1[] = new byte[1024];//开辟空间接收文件读入进来
        int i = 0;
        try{
            i = in.read(b1);//返回读入数据的个数
        }
        catch(IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        try{
            in.close();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        System.out.println(new String(b,0,i));
        // Hello Michael!
    }
}

3.2 字符流

class CharDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        // 写文件
        File f = new File("file.txt");
        FileWriter out = null;
        try{
            out = new FileWriter(f);
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        String str= "Hello Michael!";
        try{
            out.write(str);
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        try{
            out.close();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        // 读文件
        FileReader in = null;
        try{
            in = new FileReader(f);
        }
        catch (FileNotFoundException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        char c1[] = new char[1024];//开辟空间接收文件读入进来
        int i = 0;
        try{
            i = in.read(c1);//返回读入数据的个数
        }
        catch(IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        try{
            in.close();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        System.out.println(new String(c1,0,i));
        // Hello Michael!
    }
}

3.3 管道流

  • 主要用于连接两个线程间的通信
  • PipedInputStreamPipedOutputStreamPipedReaderPipedWriter
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PipedInputStream;
import java.io.PipedOutputStream;

class Sender extends Thread{
    private PipedOutputStream out = new PipedOutputStream();
    public PipedOutputStream getOutputStream() {
        return out;
    }
    public void run(){
        String s = new String("hello, Michael!");
        try{
            out.write(s.getBytes());//写入,发送
            out.close();
        }
        catch(IOException e){
            System.out.println(e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

class Receiver extends Thread{
    private PipedInputStream in = new PipedInputStream();
    public PipedInputStream getInputStream(){
        return in;
    }
    public void run(){
        String s = null;
        byte buf[] = new byte[1024];
        try{
            int len = in.read(buf);
            s = new String(buf, 0, len);
            System.out.println("收到以下讯息:"+s);
            in.close();
        }
        catch(IOException e){
            System.out.println(e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

class PipedStreamDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        try{
            Sender sender = new Sender();
            Receiver receiver = new Receiver();
            PipedOutputStream out = sender.getOutputStream();
            PipedInputStream in = receiver.getInputStream();
            out.connect(in); // 将输出发送到输入
            sender.start();
            receiver.start();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            System.out.println(e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}
// 输出 : 收到以下讯息:hello, Michael!

3.4 ByteArrayInputStream、ByteArrayOutputStream

  • 如果程序要产生一些临时文件,可以采用虚拟文件方式实现(使用这两个类)
class ByteArrayDemo{
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
        String tmp = "abcdefg**A";
        byte[] src = tmp.getBytes(); // src 为转换前的内存块
        ByteArrayInputStream input = new ByteArrayInputStream(src);
        ByteArrayOutputStream output = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        new ByteArrayDemo().transform(input, output);
        byte[] result = output.toByteArray(); // result为转换后的内存块
        System.out.println(new String(result));
        // ABCDEFG**A
    }
    public void transform(InputStream in, OutputStream out){
        int c = 0;
        try{
            while((c=in.read()) != -1)//没有读到流的结尾(-1)
            {
                int C = (int) Character.toUpperCase((char)c);
                out.write(C);
            }
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

3.5 System.in、System.out

  • System.in 对应键盘,属于 InputStream
  • Sytem.out 对应显示器,属于 PrintStream

3.6 打印流 PrintStream

class SystemPrintDemo{
    public static void main(String[] args){
        PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(System.out);
        out.print("hello Michael");
        out.println("hello Michael");
        out.close();
    }
}

输出:

hello Michaelhello Michael

进程已结束,退出代码为 0
class FilePrint{
    public static void main(String[] args){
        PrintWriter out = null;
        File f = new File("file1.txt");
        try{
            out = new PrintWriter(new FileWriter(f));
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        out.print("Hello Michael!!!");
        out.close();
    }
}

3.7 DataInputStream、DataOutputStream

import java.io.*;

class DataStreamDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
        // 将数据写入文件
        DataOutputStream out = new DataOutputStream(new FileOutputStream("order.txt"));
        double prices[] = {18.99, 9.22, 14.22, 5.22, 4.21};
        int units[] = {10, 10, 20, 39, 40};
        String [] name = {"T恤衫", "杯子", "洋娃娃", "大头针", "钥匙链"};

        for(int i = 0; i < prices.length; ++i)
        {
            //写入价格
            out.writeDouble(prices[i]);
            out.writeChar('\t');
            //写入数目
            out.writeInt(units[i]);
            out.writeChar('\t');
            //写入产品名称,行尾换行
            out.writeChars(name[i]);
            out.writeChar('\n');
        }
        out.close();

        //将数据读出
        DataInputStream in = new DataInputStream(new FileInputStream("order.txt"));
        double price;
        int unit;
        StringBuffer tempName;
        double total = 0.0;

        try{ // 文本读完后会抛出 EOF 异常
            while(true){
                price = in.readDouble();
                in.readChar();//跳过tab

                unit = in.readInt();
                in.readChar();//跳过tab

                char c;
                tempName = new StringBuffer();
                while((c=in.readChar()) != '\n')
                    tempName.append(c);
                System.out.println("订单信息:" + "产品名称:" + tempName
                        + ", \t 数量:" + unit + ", \t 价格" + price);
                total += unit*price;
            }
        }
        catch (EOFException e){
            System.out.println("\n 共需要:" + total + "元");
        }
        in.close();
    }
}

输出:

3.8 合并流

  • SequenceInputStream 类,可以实现两个文件的合并
import java.io.*;

class SequenceDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        // 两个文件输入流
        FileInputStream in1 = null, in2 = null;
        // 序列流
        SequenceInputStream s = null;
        FileOutputStream out = null;
        try{
            File inputfile1 = new File("1.txt");
            File inputfile2 = new File("2.txt");
            FileWriter wt = new FileWriter(inputfile1);
            wt.write("the first file.\nhaha! \n");
            wt.close();
            wt = new FileWriter(inputfile2);
            wt.write("the second file..");
            wt.close();

            File outputfile = new File("12.txt");

            in1 = new FileInputStream(inputfile1);
            in2 = new FileInputStream(inputfile2);

            s = new SequenceInputStream(in1, in2); // 合并两个输入流
            out = new FileOutputStream(outputfile);

            int c;
            while((c=s.read()) != -1)
                out.write(c);

            in1.close();
            in2.close();
            s.close();
            out.close();
            System.out.println("合并完成!");
        }
        catch(IOException e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

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3.9 字节流与字符流的转换

InputstreamReader 用于将一个字节流中的字节解码成字符
OutputstreamWriter 用于将写入的字符编码成字节后写入一个字节流

为了效率最高,最好不要直接用这两个类来读写,而是如下方法:

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;

class BufferDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        BufferedReader buf = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
        String str = null;
        while(true){
            System.out.println("请输入数字:");
            try{
                str = buf.readLine();
            }
            catch(IOException e){
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            int i = -1;
            try{
                i = Integer.parseInt(str);
                i++;
                System.out.println("+1 后的数字为:" + i);
                break;
            }
            catch(Exception e){
                System.out.println("输入内容不是整数,请重新输入!");
            }
        }
    }
}

输出:

请输入数字:
abc
输入内容不是整数,请重新输入!
请输入数字:
123
+1 后的数字为:124

进程已结束,退出代码为 0

3.10 IO包类层次关系




4. 字符编码

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.OutputStream;

class EncodingDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        try {
            byte[] b = "一起来学习Java吧!".getBytes("GB2312");
            OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(new File("encode.txt"));
            out.write(b);
            out.close();
        }
        catch (IOException e){
            System.out.println(e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

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5. 对象序列化

对象序列化,是指将对象转换成二进制数据流的一种实现手段。
通过将对象序列化,可以方便地实现对象的传输及保存。

在Java中提供有 ObjectInputStreamObjectOutputStream 这两个类用于序列化对象的操作。

ObjectInputStreamObjectOutputStream 这两个类,用于帮助开发者完成保存和读取对象成员变量取值的过程,但要求读写或存储的对象必须实现Serializable 接口,但 Serializable 接口中没有定义任何方法,仅仅被用做一种标记,以被编译器作特殊处理。

import java.io.*;

class Person6 implements Serializable{ // 实现了Serializable,可序列化
    private String name;
    private int age;
    public Person6(String name, int age){
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }
    public String toString(){
        return "name: " + name + ", age: " + age;
    }
}

public class SerializableDemo {
    public static void serialize(File f) throws Exception{
        OutputStream outputFile = new FileOutputStream(f);
        ObjectOutputStream cout = new ObjectOutputStream(outputFile);
        cout.writeObject(new Person6("Michael", 18));
        cout.close();
    }
    public static void deserialize(File f) throws Exception{
        InputStream inputFile = new FileInputStream(f);
        ObjectInputStream cin = new ObjectInputStream(inputFile);
        Person6 p = (Person6) cin.readObject();
        System.out.println(p);
        // name: Michael, age: 18
    }
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
        File f = new File("SerializedPersonInfo.txt");
        serialize(f);
        deserialize(f);
    }
}
  • 如果不希望类中属性被序列化,加入关键字 transient
private transient String name;
private transient int age;

输出: name: null, age: 0
已标记关键词 清除标记
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